HENRY HERVEY BABER, ( 1775-1869)

This is an Article by Nick Balmer

What follows is a brief outline of the life and times of Henry Hervey Baber, and is borne out of my feeling that he was a really nice kindly man. I have had a copy of his portrait in my possession for many years. These lead me to try to find out more.

As he was a Librarian at the British Museum, this has lead me into a fascinating search. He seems to have placed much material into the collections. However he seems to have placed them in strict accordance with his indexes, and not as a single collection. So it is a long and fascinating search, which is currently leading me into many of the libraries more obscure recesses.

My research is by no way complete, but I think that I should let Joe Baber, have the material below before it becomes ever more unwieldy.

Henry Hervey Baber was born 22nd August 1775, in Slingsby Rectory in Yorkshire. He was the second son of Thomas Baber, a London Attorney of the Inner Temple, and Elizabeth Baber, nee Berriman, from Speenhamland in Berkshire. At present I am unsure of why the family was at Slingsby, in Yorkshire, but Henry’s elder brother Thomas Hervey Baber was also born there on 29th September 1771. Possibly his father was engaged on the Northern Circuit, or that they were staying with his Grandmothers family who had links with the North of England.

The family had hitherto lived for several generations in Berkshire. His father had been born on 17th December 1738 in Newbury, his Grandfather was Thomas Draper Baber of Sunninghill, and Barbara Baber, nee Vaudrey from Douglas Chapel near Wigan in Lancashire.

Henry had several other brothers and sisters including James Hervey Baber born on 30th July 1780, in Slingsby. John Baber born 3rd March 1783 in Leather Lane London, and a William for whom we have at present no date of birth, but who does not seem to have lived very long as he died in 1789.

Henry’s education began at St Paul’s School in London. He entered All Souls College, Oxford as a Bible Scholar, In 1805 took his degree as Master of Arts. In the same year he became Vice Principle of St Mary’s Hall, and a Curate to Dr Copleston, at that time Vicar of St Mary’s the Virgin, and afterwards Bishop of Llandaff.

At the same time he commenced work as a Sub Librarian at the Bodleian Library. It was during this time that he gained the experience that enabled him to take up the post at the Library of the British Museum.

During this time he started a lasting friendship with Henry Ellis. They both applied for the post of Extra Assistant Librarian at the British Library. When Baber realised that:-

" his claims came into competition with those of his friend, Mr Ellis, he withdrew, with the delicacy of feeling which marked him through life: and the friendship which subsisted between them was cemented through life by kindred tastes and occupations".

However in 1807, "without any solicitations on his part, he became Assistant Librarian".

During 1809 on the 28th of January he married Ann Smith daughter of Harry Smith and Elizabeth nee Capp. Ann was ten years younger than Henry, her father was a Partner in Child & Co Bank. Their first child, Elizabeth Ann was born about 8th September 1810, a second daughter Helen arrived on 30th May 1814. His eldest son called Harry Baber was born on 18 March 1817. A final daughter Ann was born on 11 February 1821. What became of her is unknown at present.

The final child was a son John George Baber born on 12 June 1824, in London.

In 1812 he was promoted to Keeper of the Printed Books. At around this time he became interested in preparing a facsimile edition of the Old Testament portion of the Codex Alexandrinus. He appears to have initially tried to raise a public subscription and had set out his proposal before Mr Percival, the Prime Minister, from 1807 until 1812 when he was assassinated on 11 May.

This proposal must have failed because he then started to prepare a formal proposal, which he sent to Mr Cowper. I do not know who this particular Mr Cowper was but he may have been a distant kinsman. Henry had a great Aunt Charlotte, a sister of Thomas Draper Baber, who was married to Spencer Cowper, who became a General in the Army. They lived at Tewin in Hertfordshire.

The following are letters from Henry Hervey Baber are contained in the Lord Liverpool Papers held by the Manuscript Department of the British Museum. Reference 38255. This is a volume containing all manner of correspondence to Lord Liverpool in the autumn of 1813. Lord Liverpool was the Prime Minister, and most of the letters cover the business of running the climax of the Napoleonic wars, together with the 1812 war with America. The first letter quoted is an introductory letter, and as such is included because it sets the second letter into context.

Folio 119.

Downing Street

9th December 1813.

Dear Brooksbank.

The enclosed is a letter from Mr Baber of the British Museum, put into Mr Vansittarts hands by Mr Cowper, respecting Mr Baber’s projected publication of a fac simile (sic) of the celebrated Alexandrium m.s and Mr V. requests that you would lay it before Lord Liverpool.

I am pretty certain that that (sic) the same subject came before Mr Percival (if I mistake not in the shape of a public subscription) & that he expected his Lordship? to encourage the undertaking.

Very Sincerely yours

The signature is illegible but could be A Rosenhagen. Baber’s letter was as follows:-

Folio 120 British Museum December 4th 1813.

Dear Sir,

Being informed by Dr Madan that I was honoured with being subject of a conversation which lately took place between him and yourself and being further aquainted that you were pleased to express yourself anxious that some immediate steps should be taken to accomplish what I some time since mentioned to you, viz. that the printing of a fac – simile of the Alexandrian manuscript of the Scriptures should be a national work. I enclose to you what I have projected with the view of effecting so desirable a purpose.

I have drawn up a memorial addressed to the Prince Regent wherein is generally stated the estimation in which the Alexandrium manuscript is held, the ruin with which it is threatened by time or accident, the anxiety expressed by the learned that a facsimile of it should be published whilst an opportunity offers of accomplishing such a work, my readiness to undertake this task provided I can be exonerated from the expense.

A testimonial accompanies the memorial in confirmation of what I have (illegible) concerning the Alexandrian M.S. And in recommendation of myself as a proper person to be entrusted with the task of execution of the publication.

How far the form of the memorial is proper I know not. Your advice here would be (as it always is) valuable to me. If the application should be thought to be reasonable and likely to be attended with success, which perhaps you could more easily ascertain by the opportunities which you may have of sounding Lord Liverpool and the Chancellor of the Exchequer upon the subject, I would then lose no time in getting my testimonial properly executed by procuring the signatures of the Archbishops, some of the Bishops – the Professors of Divinity and the Professors of Greek in both Universities, and other scholars.

I have made no mention in my memorial respecting the particulars of the conditions on which I would propose that this work should be conducted or any statement of the expenses or the length of time it would occupy to complete it. I will briefly observe to you that if my memorial meets with their attention I should propose that I make an annual Report of the Progress of my work to his grace Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London, or any other persons whom it might be proper to name – that upon their testimonial being given that my statement of what I had done and what I had expended was satisfactory & correct. I should be reimbursed expenses for the year last, and so on for every year, till what remains of the Canonical Scriptures be entirely completed, which would occupy about ten years if publication is gone through with my sole individual exertion, and a less time if a stipend should be allowed for an assistant.

The expenses I reckon at a sum not less than three hundred pounds per annum 7 not exceeding five hundred pounds. The variations which there may be in each years expenses between these sums will depend upon the quantum of the original manuscript which I may be able to transcribe, collate, make notes and observations upon & print off within each year. If it should be more advisable to make a specific grant for publishing the work that a sum of not less than three thousand pounds, and not exceeding 5000 be invested in the names of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and other proper persons to be by them applied to the purpose of publication as occasioned demands.

I should further propose that the number of copies printed amount to 250 & that these be distributed & disposed of as the Prince Regent should be pleased to direct.

If I have not exhausted your patience by my long and perhaps tedious epistle & papers, & if you should be disposed to have any conversation with me upon the subject, which I have so near at heart, that had I the means I would publish a fac – simile of this most interesting and valuable MS at my own expense, I shall be most ready to call upon you whenever you can make the convenience to see me.

I beg my proper compliments to Mrs Cowper & am ("dear her")

very truly your obliged &

faithful servant.

H.H. Baber

This proposal must have met with Lord Liverpool’s approval as in 1814 and 1815 Parliament granted £4,000 towards the printing of the Codex, which appeared between 1816 and 1828.

When the full Alexandrinus Codex was eventually published in 1828, it was written that:-

"This extremely beautiful facsimile reprint of what was once believed to be the most ancient manuscript of the Scriptures, is probably one of the finest specimens of modern typography in the National Library."

For :-

"in addition to the copies on paper , no less than ten were printed on the finest vellum, and were disposed of for the large sum of one hundred and eighty four guineas the set. Two of these magnificent copies, sumptuously bound in red morocco, are now in the library of the museum; one formed part of the collection of George III; the other came with the Grenville Library."

During this same period from 1813 to 1819, Henry Baber and Henry Ellis prepared a new catalogue of printed books, Librorum impressorum qui in Museo Britannico adservantur catalogus, which was a vast improvement on the earlier catalogue, which had been produced by Ayscough. This catalogue was two interleaved copies of an edition of seven volumes.

Before Baber arrived in the Museum, the books and manuscripts seem to have taken a lesser importance to the antiquities, Edward Miller states:-

"The previously neglected departments of Printed Books and Manuscripts were likewise beginning their slow climb to the heights they reached later in the century, though they were still below the level achieved by the principal continental libraries. Henry Baber was the new Keeper of Printed Books, a more energetic and a finer scholar than any of his predecessors."

Henry Baber was trying to force publishers to conform to the newly introduced Copyright Act of 1814. Under this Act Publishers were to supply a copy of all books published to the Library. The Act seems to have been largely ignored, and on 10 February 1816, Baber and his Assistant Keeper, James Bean were asked to list the more important books not being received under the Act. These names were to be submitted to the Law Officers for an opinion on the possibility prosecution. No prosecutions seem to have been undertaken. Apparently the British Museum Trustees were very reluctant to prosecute.

During this period the numbers of books received were quite small. However the staff was at times inadequate. On 19 July 1817, Henry asked the Trustees whether it would be possible for one of the Assistants to be paid for working all day on Saturdays to clear the backlog.

In 1815 the Napoleonic wars came to an end, and Henry was able to travel to Paris shortly after the battle of Waterloo. His Great Grandson John Barton Baber, an Officer celebrating the end of World War One in Paris on the 5th December 1918, wrote from the Grand Hotel, 12 Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, to his sister Frances:-

"Today the Belgium Royalty are coming here, & the streets are full of French Cavalry etc marching to line the streets, while half the population are engaged in selling Belgium colours to the other half. I am awfully glad that I saw him just now, for if you remember our Great Grandfather Henry Hervey was here 103 years ago after the conclusion of hostilities at Waterloo. I doubt if he received quite as friendly a reception in the streets as we do, & I certainly trust that he did not spend so much money."

In 1821 an edition of his chief work, an edition of the Old Testament portion of the Codex Alexandrinus, ' Vetus Testamentum Graecum e Codice MS. Alexandrino . . . typis ad similitudinem ipsius codicis Scripturae fideliter descriptum cura et labore H.H. Baber,' in 3 volumes. was published in London, 1816-21, later versions appeared in 1828.

As a result of coming to notice for printing the Alexandra Codex, Henry was granted the Rectory of Stretham with Thetford in Cambridgeshire in 1827. He held this post together with his position at the British Museum, a further ten years until 1837.

Henry may not have spent all that much time in Stretham at first, as it is recorded that his predecessor the Reverend T.C.W Swaine,

"sold his furniture, miscellaneous articles, his one horse chaise, horses, harnesses, two stacks of hay and cellar of wines before his departure from the village on the 18th September 1829.".

He employed a Curate for some of the time, we know for instance from the Census that in 1851 the Curate was the Reverend Robert Raynbird, a 31 year old from Bacton in Suffolk.

Stretham is an attractive village on a low hill set in the Fens, on the Cambridge to Ely Road, some ten miles north of Cambridge. At this time the area was only partly drained, as it was one of the lowest areas of the Fenland, much of which is below sea level. At the adjacent village of Wicken the last remaining undrained part of the fen can be seen to this day. During Henry’s lifetime the land was drained with a massive new steam pumping engine, which is still preserved to this day as a working monument. As early as 1832 efforts were underway to replace windmills for pumping by new steam engines. These changes together with enclosures caused widespread unrest amongst the poor farm workers, who felt that they would loose many of their rights, by the land reforms.

This lead to a very unpleasant situation both for the villagers and their Rector in November 1833.

"Revolt at Little Thetford":

"In November notices appeared in the local press announcing the intention to apply for an Act of Parliament to enclose lands in Stretham and Little Thetford; part of the formalities involved pinning notices of this to the church doors of the villages concerned and the officials duly proceeded from Ely to Thetford to carry this out. However at Thetford they found a dozen men who opposed enclosure waiting for them, each armed with bludgeons, who prevented an official getting to the church door. They retired but saw the Ely magistrates who ordered 10 constables should be a match for 12 villagers. By the time they got to their destination they found not 12 but 150 protesters, all with sticks. Eventually the police withdrew, bruised; the villagers maintained watch until midnight. The next afternoon, being Sunday, the clergyman arrived to conduct the service, the watchers resisted – "No church today"; but the Rector persisted and entered the church accompanied by his warden, one of the protesting crowd. 15 November page 1, 29 November 1833, page 3."

Unfortunately I have no idea where Henry’s sympathies lay over the enclosures, but we do know that he voted for Charles Phillip Yorke Esq, in the 1833 Election.

By 1834 the earlier catalogue produced between 1813 and 1819 by Baber and Ellis had become to small and was crowded by later insertions made necessary by new titles. It was decided to start again. In April 1834 Baber presented a detailed scheme for a new and comprehensive catalogue with his brilliant young Italian exile colleague, Mr Panizzi. His catalogue was to be arranged by Authors, but the Trustees wanted a subject catalogue. A subject catalogue had been in preparation with only slight success by Ellis since 1825. The subject catalogue was insisted on by the Trustees and Baber was ordered to put it into operation.

This system of cataloguing was persisted with for 15 years before being abandoned.

R Cowtan who was to carry out much of the transcribing work describes in his "Memories of the British Museum" published in 1872,tells how Baber obtained a post for Cowtan from Dr Cowley, Archbishop of Canterbury, at Cowtan’s fathers request.

Baber and Mr Cary, assistant keeper of the department would inspect Cowtan’s transcriptions, before they were printed. At one point the specimen sheets were laid before the Board of Trustees who included the Archbishop of Canterbury, The Lord High Chancellor of England, the Speaker of the House of Commons, Sir Robert Peel, and Sir Robert Harry Inglis.

Up to this point the library was run on a shoestring, and was attracting much criticism from many people including William Cobbett the famous Radical politician. In the House of Commons Cobbett denounced the Museum "as a place intended only for the amusement of the curious and the rich."

The books held totalled about 200,000 including King George III collection. Only £200 to £300 was voted annually by Parliament which was woefully inadequate. Only those with private incomes could afford to work there. Baber had the living of Stretham by this time valued at around £600 per annum, which goes someway to put the funding into context.

In 1835 and 1836, a Parliamentary inquiry was held, with a Committee reporting to the House of Commons. Baber was to the front of those urging reform and paid salaries for full time staff. Previously staff had had to hold dual posts to maintain sufficient income. Mr Baber therefore resigned his position once it was known that Parliament would accept his recommendation.

Other problems included patronage, all senior posts being filled by the recommendation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and subordinate posts by antiquated footmen and elderly Butlers, who might thus be provided for by the noble masters, with no consideration of their educational fitness for the posts.

Henry had also produced the plans contained within the 1835-1836 Parliamentary report that lead to the move from Montague House to the world famous Circular Reading Room which was to remain the Libraries home until 1999, when it moved again.

In the year 1837 he resigned his post at the British Museum, and retired to his rectory. His resignation was partly made in consequence of a recommendation of a parliamentary committee in l836, that officials of the museum should not hold any other situation conferring emoluments or entailing duties

This recommendation, that because the post of Keeper of the Printed Books, had become such a time consuming position, that it could not carried out in any other way than as a full time salaried post, had been made by Henry Baber. Because of this belief, he wished to tender his resignation.

The next year brought the Coronation of Queen Victoria. In the village of Stretham the event was celebrated with a party:-

"The Village of Stretham was one of the foremost in displaying the loyalty of its inhabitants on Thursday. A good dinner was given to the poor in a field of Mr. Read’s excellently adapted for the purpose, and afterwards some well arranged donkey and foot racing, and other sports, formed a source of innocent and agreeable amusement to the party assembled. The dinner was provided at the expense of the worthy Rector and the principle , and the scene altogether was one of a very gratifying description. Mirth and good humour prevailed during the whole proceedings and when the poor left the field, attended by their rural band, they proceeded to the houses of their owen accord to the houses of the principle contributors to the fund, serenading them with the tune and song "God Save the Queen" and expressing great thankfulness for the kind manner in which they had been entertained." 30 June 1837.

The early years of Victoria’s reign passed relatively quietly for Henry now in his 60’s. He seems to have lived with his two daughters for company.

In 1841 his Mother in Law Elizabeth Capp died, and Henry was left a travelling Communion Set.


In 1844 the Reverend Rainbird, a 24 year old from Bacton in Suffolk came to the parish as Curate. He was to stay for 15 years, when on 30 April 1859 he was presented with some silver plate to mark the occasion.

During 1844, in May a major fire starting in the blacksmiths devastated much of the village. This fire was one of a number which had swept the village, an earlier one in 1771, had occurred in much the same way. The 1844 fire destroyed 25 houses. On that occasion the Haddenham Vicar was reported as being instrumental in saving many of the houses with the Haddenham Fire Engine. Peoples possessions were placed in the church for protection. We don’t know if it directly affected Henry’s property but a major appeal for relief funds must have involved him.

On 10 August 1847 Harry Baber, Henry’s son, married Sarah Frances Rodwell (born 25 May 1820), who came from Alderton, and Claydon, in Suffolk. We believe the marriage took place at Alderton, where her Father Joshua Rodwell (28 August 1787 to 10 May 1867) and Mother Sarah daughter of James Moore of Badley.

As Joshua Rodwell was one of twelve children, and Sarah had seven brothers and sisters, it must of been quite a family wedding. Harry was to have two grandchildren, Sarah Elizabeth the eldest was born on 30 November 1848. She would die early aged 26 on 21 April 1875. Harry Hutchinson Baber his only grandson was born in 17 April 1850.

1850 started normally enough for Henry with preparations for a Confirmation service on the 1 June when in the first such service in the village 54 people were confirmed, then on 28th September disaster struck for Henry.

The story is best told by the contemporary local paper the Cambridge Chronicle.


"STRETHAM.-- The quietude of this village was again disturbed by the cries of fire on Friday evening, about half-past nine o’clock, which began at a bean stack belonging to the Rev. H.H. Baber, and soon extended to a large barn, which was boarded and thatched, and having been recently new dressed, the flames raged most alarmingly, and appeared to threaten destruction to all that part of the village. Fortunately, by the exertions of some and the timely arrival of the Haddenham and Ely engines, the fire was got under, but not until the morning. The property consumed is the bean stack where it began, and the barn, which was full of wheat and barley unthrashed, and nearly 20 coombs of corn in sacks; stable adjoining; also a wheat stack, the produce of 4 acres belonging to the rector, one wheat stack, one bean stack, one large hay stack, a piece of old clover, one large straw sack, the property of Mr Edward Dimock, and part of the house occupied by Mr. Parish, butcher; also the old Red Lion Inn, and barn containing nearly a last of thrashed oats; also the cart sheds, piggeries, and firing lodges, the property of J. hall. Esq. Ely which are insured in the Sun Fire office. The Norwich Union and the Suffolk are also sufferers from this fire. The total loss is estimated at 1,500l.

For some years a fire raiser had been present in the village, on two previous occasions earlier in the year on 5 January, and 9 of March two previous cases of fire raising had occurred. Further fires occurred on 5th October and 19th October. A Scotland Yard detective was sent from London, and a Committee was appointed to apprehend the arsonist. Police Inspector Lees arrested a migrant worker, but their was no real evidence so he was released. Frustrated people sent "a gentleman farmer" to the village of Trumpington to consult a "wise woman", but to no avail.

Helen Baber seems to have kept the house for her father, for in the Census of 1851, we find her as head of the household. Henry must of being staying elsewhere on the day of the census.

Also staying in the house was the Curate, Robert Raynbird, aged 31 from Bacton in Suffolk., the cook, Rebecca Knight, aged 26 from Hurstpierpoint in Sussex, two housemaids, Diana Dolby aged 58 from Southwick in Northamptonshire, and Mary A Chapman, 25 from Cambridge. They also had a footman, George Clark aged 20 from Stretham.

The Cambridge Chronicle reported on the 4 May 1867, that the Rector gave a new East Window,:-

"regret was expressed that when the spire was restored it was not brought to a point instead of the present ugly mushroom, and that the crocheted windows were not restored."

Mr. Baber died on Easter Day 28 March 1869, at the age of 94. At the time of his death his obituary in the Cambridge Chronicle said of him:-

"In the assiduous discharge of his duties of that parish he continued till within a short time of his disease. He was at the time of his death one of the oldest members of the Royal Society, and also of the Royal Society of Literature, of -which he was one of the original founders.

He was taken to his rest on Easter Day, while the memorial of his Masters dying love was being celebrated in the church which he had so long served. His later years were much cheered by the unbounded kindness and most courteous attention which he received from the present Bishop of Ely, and from the Dean and other members of the Cathedral body. The funeral service will be performed over his remains to-day, by his friend the Dean of Ely. Few who have passed away from us have left more honourable memorials of their toils, or a more endearing memory of their virtues."

The Baber involvement at Stretham didn’t end with Henry’s death, for his two daughters maintained an interest in the village. The new Rector H Pigot was a younger energetic parson, who seems to been a great moderniser, he vigorously raised funds to build the new village school. In November 1872 this was opened at a cost of between £1,300 and £1,400. The Rector Pigot provided £400, personally. He is also thought to have restored and altered the Rectory, so that its appearance has changed somewhat since Henry Hervey Baber lived there.

The Rectory has in 1997-1998 been bought by a charity and converted into a home for severely autistic teenagers and adults, and could not be visited. However it is easily seen from the road and church yard. Henry'’ tomb is situated under an arch set in an alcove off one side of the nave, on the opposite side to the door. Recently when I have visited the grave it has been "buried" under chairs and pieces of wood and is hard to see.

In July 1874 the complete restoration of the church was started. The Rector gave £1,000 and the Misses Baber gave £450, towards the £3,200 estimate. In 1876 on 10 June the Bishop came to reopen the church, the choir was surpliced for the first time, these being presented by Miss A. M. Baber. Later an evening service was taken by the Rev Woodard the new Curate with a sermon by Henry’s son the Reverend Harry Baber, which was printed for circulation.

For many years a debt of several hundred years was outstanding, being slowly repaid, until in 1881:-

"The Rector was able to announce the £210 still owing on the restoration had been paid off by Miss Helen Baber; an entertainment was held in the Boys school room, the star of the show was Miss Merrivale whose songs "Coming through the rye" and " Jock O ‘Hazeldean" were much admired". 11 June 1881.

Harry Baber, who had become Chaplain of Whitelands College, and later Vicar of Ramsbury died on 18 January 1892.

Helen Baber was shortly to die, at Clifton a seaside resort very close to Chew Magna in Somerset. The Cambridge Chronicle reported on the 13 August 1881:-

"the church was again filled for the funeral of Miss Baber, daughter of the former Rector, who was greatly loved and respected. Her body was brought to Stretham from Clifton where she died, she was buried in the family vault."

She may have been staying with her youngest brother, John George Baber who was to die on 12 December 1891 at 7 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. He was Chaplain of Thorverton in Devon from 1855 to 1874.

In 1897 her sister Miss A. M Baber was reported dead.. However the memory of the Baber’s is still in 1999 not entirely dead, for when my father visited Stretham earlier this year he was directed to an elderly lady, Beatrice Stevens.

A recently published book "Stretham, A Feast of Memories" by Beatrice Stevens, who was born in Stretham in 1907, contains the following story to the credit of one of the Baber sisters. Living in the village as a girl, she would frequently hear the Town Crier’s "Oyez! Oyez! Oyez!, as John Sennitt passed along the street. John had only one arm as the result of the loss of an arm in a threshing engine whilst young.

"It was, indirectly, because of this handicap that John became the Town Crier. The Rector's daughter, Miss Baber, took a special interest in the small boy. She taught him to read to the envy of his brother George, who could hardly sign his own name, and, one day when a Garden Party to be held at the Rectory had to be postponed because of rain, John was given a tea-bell and told to go round the village announcing the postponement. Willing, but fearful, John set off, but "postponed" was too much for him and he ended up by shouting in his already-stentorian voice, "The Garden Party won't be held today. It's put off until another time."

The story goes that lad who was the stable-boy at the Red Lion on the Stage Coach route, which ran though Stretham, from London to Ely, was ordered by the Landlord to read aloud the news from the latest London Newspapers freshly delivered by the coach.

I wish to acknowledge the help of Vera Baber, Joe Baber, Mike Petty, the British Museum Library and Cambridge City Library during the preparation of this article. I am still working on my research into my families history, and any additions to the above information, or corrections to errors of fact would be greatly appreciated.


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